Group therapy is one of the most successful interventions for adolescents. This is because of the nature of this stage of development and the need to belong to a group. Hearing the stories of other teens and knowing that their experiences and feelings are similar is very therapeutic. Another characteristic of the adolescent stage is a short attention span, so the clinical social worker should tailor exercises that initiate and sustain discussion for adolescents.
For this Assignment, watch the “Bradley” video.
In a 2- to 4-pages, identify two opening exercises that you might recommend for a group of adolescent girls who were victims of human trafficking.
Toseland, R. W., & Rivas, R. F. (2017). An introduction to group work practice (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Chapter 7, “The Group Begins” (pp. 197–230)
Chapter 8, “Assessment” (pp. 230-263)
Holosko, M. J., Dulmus, C. N., & Sowers, K. M. (2013). Social work practice with individuals and families: Evidence-informed assessments and interventions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 3 “Assessment of Adolescents”
Chapter 4 “Intervention with Adolescents”
Bradley Family Episode 1
THERAPIST: First off, Tiffany, I want you to know how really glad we are that you're here. There's a lot that we do here that I think would be very good for you.
Can I tell you about them?
THERAPIST: One of the services that I'm really excited about is the Teens First program we offer. It's been open a little less than a year, but it's already doing great things.
TIFFANY: What does it do?
THERAPIST: Well, it's really the only organization of its kind. It provides treatment to women who've been in your type of situation. That's the only group we treat.
TIFFANY: My situation? Why don't you just say what you mean? I'm a whore.
THERAPIST: That's just it, Tiffany. We don't see you that way. Young women who've been arrested for prostitution, we see them as victims of human trafficking. You're not a criminal. You're a survivor.
TIFFANY: I don't understand why I have to be here. I was fine where I was. I want to go back with my boyfriend.
THERAPIST: The one named Donald?
THERAPIST: You said he was acting as your pimp. You said he bought you from someone else. Is that what a boyfriend does?
TIFFANY: I think it's great you have all these services. But I don't need them.
THERAPIST: Well, that's something that I definitely want you to talk to me about over the next several weeks. The plan is for you and I to meet alone a couple times a week. And we'll also meet in a group with some other young women like yourself.
TIFFANY: There's no one like me.
©2013 Laureate Education, Inc. 1
Bradley Family Episode 1
THERAPIST: You're right. There is no one like you. I just meant other young women who've gone through similar experiences. You also get three meals a day. They're pretty good, actually. Healthy.
And a room to sleep in. And then there's a case manager who will talk to you about jobs, going back to school, what you might want to do for a living. It's really a great opportunity.
TIFFANY: I want to go to college. Design clothes.
THERAPIST: Well, that's great. I think that sounds really, really good. So do you want to see your room?
Music by Clean Cuts
Original Art and Photography Provided By:
Brian Kline and Nico Danks
©2013 Laureate Education, Inc. 2
Competency 1: Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior
Behaviors Make ethical decisions by applying the standards of the NASW Code of Ethics, relevant laws and regulations, models for ethical decision-making, ethical conduct of research, and additional codes of ethics as appropriate to context.
1, 7, 13, 14
Use reflection and self-regulation to manage personal values and maintain professionalism in practice situations
1, 4, 5
Demonstrate professional demeanor in behavior; appearance; and oral, written, and electronic communication
1, 6, 7
Use technology ethically and appropriately to facilitate practice outcomes 1, 6, 14
Use supervision and consultation to guide professional judgment and behavior 1, 4
Competency 2: Engage Diversity and Difference in Practice
Behaviors Apply and communicate understanding of the importance of diversity and difference in shaping life experiences in practice at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels
3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Present themselves as learners and engage clients and constituencies as experts of their own experiences
1, 5, 8, 14
Apply self-awareness and self-regulation to manage the influence of personal biases and values in working with diverse clients and constituencies
1, 4, 5, 7, 8
Competency 3: Advance Human Rights and Social, Economic, and Environmental Justice
Behaviors Apply their understanding of social, economic, and environmental justice to advocate for human rights at the individual and system levels
4, 5, 8, 9
Engage in practices that advance social, economic, and environmental justice 3, 4, 5, 9
Competency 4: Engage In Practice-informed Research and Research-informed Practice
Behaviors Use practice experience and theory to inform scientific inquiry and research 2, 3, 8, 14
Apply critical thinking to engage in analysis of quantitative and qualitative research methods and research findings
2, 4, 8, 10, 14
Use and translate research evidence to inform and improve practice, policy, and service delivery 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
Competency 5: Engage in Policy Practice
Behaviors Identify social policy at the local, state, and federal level that impacts well-being, service delivery, and access to social services
1, 4, 5, 11, 12
CSWE EPAS 2015 Core Competencies and Behaviors in This Text
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Assess how social welfare and economic policies impact the delivery of and access to social services 1, 5, 10, 12
Apply critical thinking to analyze, formulate, and advocate for policies that advance human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice
1, 5, 8, 12
Competency 6: Engage with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities
Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to engage with clients and constituencies
2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12
Use empathy, reflection, and interpersonal skills to effectively engage diverse clients and constituencies 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11
Competency 7: Assess Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities
Collect and organize data, and apply critical thinking to interpret information from clients and constituencies
4, 7, 8, 12, 14
Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the analysis of assessment data from clients and constituencies
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8
Develop mutually agreed-on intervention goals and objectives based on the critical assessment of strengths, needs, and challenges within clients and constituencies
6, 7, 8, 9, 14
Select appropriate intervention strategies based on the assessment, research knowledge, and values and preferences of clients and constituencies
3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11
Competency 8: Intervene with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities
Behaviors Critically choose and implement interventions to achieve practice goals and enhance capacities of clients and constituencies
1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in interventions with clients and constituencies
2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
Use inter-professional collaboration as appropriate to achieve beneficial practice outcomes 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Negotiate, mediate, and advocate with and on behalf of diverse clients and constituencies 5, 8, 9, 10, 12
Facilitate effective transitions and endings that advance mutually agreed-on goals 13
Competency 9: Evaluate Practice with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities
Behaviors Select and use appropriate methods for evaluation of outcomes 6, 8, 11, 14
Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the evaluation of outcomes
1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 14
Critically analyze, monitor, and evaluate intervention and program processes and outcomes 5, 6, 8, 14
Apply evaluation findings to improve practice effectiveness at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels 14
CSWE EPAS 2015 Core Competencies and Behaviors in This Text
Adapted with permission of Council on Social Work Education. These competencies and behaviors also appear in the margins throughout this text.
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Harlow, England • London • New York • Boston • San Francisco • Toronto • Sydney • Dubai • Singapore Hong Kong • Tokyo • Seoul • Taipei New Delhi • Cape Town • Sao Paulo • Mexico City • Madrid • Amsterdam Munich • Paris • Milan
An Introduction to Group Work Practice Ronald W. Toseland University at Albany, State University of New York
Robert F. Rivas Siena College, Emeritus
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To our parents, Stella and Ed, Marg and Al
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1. Introduction 17 Organization of the Text 18 The Focus of Group Work Practice 18 Values and Ethics in Group Work Practice 21
Practice Values 21 Practice Ethics 24
Definition of Group Work 27 Classifying Groups 28
Formed and Natural Groups 28 Purpose and Group Work 29 Treatment and Task Groups 29
Group Versus Individual Efforts 32 Advantages and Disadvantages of Treatment Groups 32 Advantages and Disadvantages of Task Groups 34
A Typology of Treatment and Task Groups 35 Treatment Groups 36
Support Groups 36 Educational Groups 38 Growth Groups 39 Therapy Groups 40 Socialization Groups 41 Self-Help Groups 42
Task Groups 44 Groups to Meet Client Needs 44 Groups to Meet Organizational Needs 50 Groups to Meet Community Needs 54
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2. Historical and Theoretical Developments 59 Knowledge f rom Group Work Practice and Practice Research: Treatment Groups 59
Differences Between Casework and Group Work 60 Intervention Targets 61 The Weakening of Group Work 62 Current Practice Trends 63 Divergent and Unified Practice Models 66 Evidence-based Group Work Practice 67 The Popularity of Psycho-educational, Structured, Practice Models 68
Knowledge f rom Group Work Practice: Task Groups 69 Knowledge f rom Social Science Research 70 Inf luential Theories 72
Systems Theory 72 Psychodynamic Theory 75 Learning Theory 76 Field Theory 77 Social Exchange Theory 79 Constructivist, Empowerment, and Narrative Theories 80
3. Understanding Group Dynamics 83 The Development of Helpful Group Dynamics 83 Group Dynamics 84
Communication and Interaction Patterns 84 Group Cohesion 95 Social Integration and Inf luence 99 Group Culture 105
Stages of Group Development 108 Summary 112
4. Leadership 114 Leadership, Power, and Empowerment 115
Leadership, Empowerment, and the Planned Change Process 118 Theories of Group Leadership 119 Factors Inf luencing Group Leadership 120 Effective Leadership 121
An Interactional Model of Leadership 122 Purposes of the Group 122 Type of Problem 123 The Environment 125 The Group as a Whole 126 The Group Members 127 The Group Leader 128
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Group Leadership Skills 129 Facilitating Group Processes 130 Data-Gathering and Assessment 134 Action Skills 136 Learning Group Leadership Skills 143 Leadership Style 144
Co-leadership 148 Summary 151
5. Leadership and Diversity 153 Approaches to Multicultural Group Work 154 A Framework for Leading Diverse Groups 155
Developing Cultural Sensitivity 156 Assessing Cultural Inf luences on Group Behavior 160 Intervening with Sensitivity to Diversity 166
6. Planning the Group 176 Planning Focus 176 Planning Model for Group Work 178
Establishing the Group’s Purpose 178 Assessing Potential Sponsorship and Membership 179 Recruiting Members 185 Composing the Group 188 Orienting Members 194 Contracting 196 Preparing the Environment 198 Reviewing the Literature 200 Selecting Monitoring and Evaluation Tools 201 Preparing a Written Group Proposal 202 Planning Distance Groups 202
7. The Group Begins 212 Objectives in the Beginning Stage 213
Ensuring a Secure Environment 214 Introducing New Members 215 Defining the Purpose of the Group 220 Confidentiality 223 Helping Members Feel a Part of the Group 225 Guiding the Development of the Group 226 Balancing Task and Socio-emotional Foci 231 Goal Setting in Group Work 231
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Contracting 234 Facilitating Members’ Motivation 235 Addressing Ambivalence and Resistance 235 Working with Involuntary Members 240 Anticipating Obstacles 242 Monitoring and Evaluating the Group: The Change Process Begins 243
8. Assessment 246 Conducting Efffective Assessments 247
Focus on Group Processes 248 External Constituencies and Sponsors 249
The Assessment Process 249 How Much Information? 250 Diagnostic Labels 251 Assessment Focus 252 Relationship of Assessment to the Change Process and Problem Solving 253
Assessing the Functioning of Group Members 254 Methods for Assessing Group Members 255
Assessing the Functioning of the Group as a Whole 262 Assessing Communication and Interaction Patterns 262 Assessing Cohesion 263 Assessing Social Integration 265 Assessing Group Culture 270
Assessing the Group’s Environment 271 Assessing the Sponsoring Organization 271 Assessing the Interorganizational Environment 273 Assessing the Community Environment 274
Linking Assessment to Intervention 276 Summary 279
9. Treatment Groups: Foundation Methods 280 Middle-Stage Skills 280
Preparing for Group Meetings 281 Structuring the Group’s Work 285 Involving and Empowering Group Members 291 Helping Members Achieve Goals 293 Using Empirically Based Treatment Methods in Therapy Groups 303 Working with Reluctant and Resistant Group Members During the Middle Phase 305 Monitoring and Evaluating the Group’s Progress 308
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10. Treatment Groups: Specialized Methods 311 Overreliance on Specialized Methods 311
Intervening with Group Members 312 Intrapersonal Interventions 313 Identifying and Discriminating 314 Recognizing Associations 315 Analyzing the Rationality of Thoughts and Belief s 316 Changing Thoughts, Belief s, and Feeling States 318 Interpersonal Interventions 326 Learning by Observing Models 327 Environmental Interventions 333 Connecting Members to Concrete Resources 333 Expanding Members’ Social Networks 334 Contingency Management Procedures 335 Modifying Physical Environments 338
Intervening in the Group as a Whole 339 Changing Communication and Interaction Patterns 339 Changing the Group’s Attraction for Its Members 341 Using Social Integration Dynamics Effectively 343 Changing Group Culture 345
Changing the Group Environment 346 Increasing Agency Support for Group Work Services 346 Links with Interagency Networks 348 Increasing Community Awareness 349
11. Task Groups: Foundation Methods 352 The Ubiquitous Task Group 352 Leading Task Groups 353
Leading Meetings 354 Sharing Information 356 Enhancing Involvement and Commitment 358 Developing Information 359 Dealing with Conf lict 361 Making Effective Decisions 364 Understanding Task Groups’ Political Ramifications 366 Monitoring and Evaluating 367 Problem Solving 368
A Model for Effective Problem Solving 369 Identifying a Problem 370 Developing Goals 373 Collecting Data 374 Developing Plans 375
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Selecting the Best Plan 375 Implementing the Plan 376
12. Task Groups: Specialized Methods 380 Small Organizational Groups 380
Brainstorming 380 Variations on Brainstorming 384 Focus Groups 385 Nominal Group Technique 388 Multi-attribute Utility Analysis 392 Quality Improvement Groups 395
Large Organizational Groups 397 Parliamentary Procedure 397 Phillips’ 66 401
Methods for Working with Community Groups 403 Mobilization Strategies 403 Capacity-Building Strategies 405 Social Action Strategies 407
13. Ending the Group’s Work 411 Factors that Inf luence Group Endings 411 The Process of Ending 412 Planned and Unplanned Termination 412
Member Termination 413 Worker Termination 415
Ending Group Meetings 416 Ending the Group as a Whole 418
Learning from Members 418 Maintaining and Generalizing Change Efforts 418 Reducing Group Attraction 424 Feelings About Ending 426 Planning for the Future 428 Making Referrals 429
14. Evaluation 433 Why Evaluate? The Group Worker’s View 435
Reasons for Conducting Evaluations 435 Organizational Encouragement and Support 435
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Time Considerations 436 Selecting a Data Collection Method 436
Evaluation Methods 437 Evaluations for Planning a Group 437
Obtaining Program Information 437 Needs Assessment 438
Evaluations for Monitoring a Group 439 Monitoring Methods 439
Evaluations for Developing a Group 445 Single-System Methods 446 Case Study Methods 449 Participatory Action Research Methods (PARS) 450
Evaluations for Determining Effectiveness and Efficiency 450 Evaluation Measures 454
Choosing Measures 454 Types of Measures 455
Appendix A: Standards for Social Work Practice with Groups 460 Appendix B: Group Announcements 471 Appendix C: Outline for a Group Proposal 473 Appendix D: An Example of a Treatment Group Proposal 474 Appendix E: An Example of a Task Group Proposal 476 References 478 Author Index 507 Subject Index 519
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We are gratified by the wide use of this text by professionals, as well as by educators and students in undergraduate and graduate courses in schools of social work throughout the United States and the world.
Because we are committed to presenting a coherent and organized over- view of g roup work practice f rom a generalist practice perspective, the eighth edition continues to include typolog ies illustrating group work practice with task and treatment g roups at the micro-, meso-, and macro-level. Our research and practice focuses primarily on treatment groups, and the eighth edition continues to present our interest in improving practice with many different types of treatment groups.
New to This Edition • Research on Virtual Groups. In recent years, we have done research on the
uses of virtual group formats (teleconference and Internet groups) and have included an updated and expanded section on virtual groups in the 6th chapter of this edition.
• Additional case examples throughout this edition illustrate practice with a wide variety of groups. These were added based on feedback f rom our students, reviewers of the book, instructors, and others who have contacted us about the importance of illustrations of evidence-based practice examples.
• Updated and deeper content of the middle stage chapters on practice with treatment and task groups. The latest evidence-based treatment and task group research is incorporated throughout Chapters 9 through 12, and content has been added, deleted, and changed to ref lect current practice.
• Incorporated the most current literature on working with reluctant and resistant group members in specific sections of Chapters 7 and 9 and throughout the text.
• We find that our students face many situations with individuals who have encountered multiple traumas in their family lives and in the larger social environment, making them understandably reticent to engage group workers and fellow group members, and trust in the power of group work to heal. There- fore, we have updated and expanded sections on working with individuals who have difficulty engaging in and sustaining work in groups and have added addi- tional information about conf lict resolution skills as it pertains to both treatment and task groups.
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• Thoroughly updated Chapter 5 on leadership and diversity as social group work- ers practice in an increasingly pluralistic society.
• Thoroughly updated reference material and new content f rom evidence-based practice sources.
About Group Work Over the years, we have been especially pleased that our text has been used by educators who are dedicated to improving task group practice within social work. Group work is a neglected area of social work practice, especially practice with task groups. Most social workers spend a great deal of time in teams, treatment conferences, and committees, and many social workers have leadership responsibilities in these groups. Group work is also essential for effective macro social work practice, and therefore, we have continued to emphasize practice with community groups. The eighth edition also continues our focus on three focal areas of practice: (1) the individual group member, (2) the group as a whole, and (3) the environment in which the group functions. We continue to empha- size the importance of the latter two focal areas because our experiences in supervising group workers and students and conducting workshops for professionals have revealed that the dynamics of a group as a whole and the environment in which groups function are often a neglected aspect of group work practice.
Connecting Core Competencies Series This edition is a part of Pearson’s Connecting Core Competencies series, which con- sists of foundation-level texts that make it easier than ever to ensure students’ success in learning the nine core competencies as stated in 2015 by the Council on Social Worker Education. This text contains:
• Core Competency Icons throughout the chapters, directly linking the CSWE core competencies to the content of the text. Critical thinking questions are also included to further students’ mastery of the CSWE’s standards.
• For easy reference, a matrix is included at the beginning of the book that aligns the book chapters with the CSWE Core Competencies and Behavior Examples.
Instructor Supplements The following supplemental products may be downloaded f rom www.pearsonglobal editions.com/toseland.
Instructor’s Resource Manual and Test Bank. This manual contains a sample syllabus, chapter summaries, learning outcomes, chapter outlines, teaching tips, dis- cussion questions, multiple-choice and essay assessment items and other supportive resources.
PowerPoint Slides. For each chapter in the book, we have prepared a PowerPoint slide deck focusing on key concepts and strategies.
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Acknowledgments The ideas expressed in this book have evolved during many years of study, practice, and research. Some of the earliest and most powerful inf luences that have shaped this effort have come about through our relationships with Bernard Hill, Alan Klein, Sheldon Rose, and Max Siporin. Their contributions to the development of our thinking are evi- dent throughout this book. The ideas in this book were also inf luenced by Albert Alissi, Martin Birnbaum, Leonard Brown, Charles Garvin, Alex Gitterman, Burton Gummer, Margaret Hartford, Grafton Hull, Jr., Norma Lang, Catherine Papell, William Reid, Beulah Rothman, Jarrold Shapiro, Laurence Shulman, and Peter Vaughan. Our appreciation and thanks to the reviewers of the seventh edition who gave us valuable advice for how to improve this new eighth edition: Tom Broffman, Eastern Connecticut State University; Daniel B. Freedman, University of South Carolina; Kim Knox, New Mexico State University; Gayle Mallinger, Western Kentucky University; John Walter Miller, Jr., University of Arkansas at Little Rock. We are also indebted to the many practitioners and students with whom we have worked over the years. Reviewing practice experiences, discussing group meetings, and providing consultation and supervision to the practitioners with whom we work with during research projects, supervision, staff meetings, and workshops has helped us to clarify and improve the ideas presented in this text.
We would also like to acknowledge the material support and encouragement given to us by our respective educational institutions. The administrative and support staff of the School of Social Welfare, University at Albany, State University of New York, and Siena College have played important roles in helping us to accomplish this project. Most of all, however, we are indebted to our spouses, Sheryl Holland and Donna Allingham Rivas. Their personal and professional insights have done much to enrich this book. Without their continuous support and encouragement, we would not have been able to complete this work. A special note of thanks also goes to Rebecca, Stacey, and Heather for sacrificing some of their dads’ time so that we are able to keep this book current and relevant for today’s practice environment.
Ronald W. Toseland Robert F. Rivas
Acknowledgments for the Global Edition Pearson would like to thank the following people for their work:
Contributors: Henglien Lisa Chen, University of
Sussex Pooja Thakur, writer Elizabeth Wright, Murdoch University
Reviewers: Bruce Gillmer, Northumberland, Tyne
and Wear NHS Foundation Trust Pooja Thakur, writer Elizabeth Wright, Murdoch University
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This text focuses on the practice of group work by professional social workers. Group work entails the deliberate use of interven- tion strategies and group processes to accomplish individual, group, and community goals using the value base and the ethical practice principles of the social work profession. As one prepares to become an effective social work practitioner, it is important to realize the effect that groups have on people’s lives. It is not possible to be a member of a society without becoming a member or leader of groups and being inf luenced by others without direct participation. Internet groups are also becoming more popular as people choose to meet others in virtually as well as face-to-face. Although it is pos- sible to live in an isolated manner or on the f ringes of face-to-face and virtual groups, our social nature makes this neither desirable nor healthy.
Groups provide the structure on which communities and the larger society are built. They provide formal and informal struc- ture in the workplace. They also provide a means through which relationships with significant others are carried out. Participation in family groups, peer groups, and classroom groups helps mem- bers learn acceptable norms of social behavior, engage in satisfying social relationships, identify personal goals, and derive a variety of other benefits that result f rom participating in closely knit social systems. Experiences in social, church, recreation, and other work groups are essential in the development and maintenance of people and society. Putnam (2000) points out that there has been a sharp decline in participation in clubs and other civic organizations and that social capital is not valued in contemporary society. At the same time, web-based social network and self-help group sites continue to grow enormously in popularity, enabling users to keep up con- tacts with more and more people. One goal of this book is to under- score the importance of groups as fundamental building blocks for a connected, vibrant society.
L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S
• Describe how group work is carried out using a generalist perspective.
• Demonstrate how values and professional ethics are applied in group work practice.
• Define group work and its practice applications.
• Compare the differences between task- and treatment-oriented groups.
• List the advantages and disadvantages of using groups to help people and to accomplish tasks.
• Describe the types and functions of treatment groups.
• Define the types and functions of task groups.
C H A P T E R O U T L I N E
Organization of the Text 18
The Focus of Group Work Practice 18
Values and Ethics in Group Work Practice 21
Definition of Group Work 27
Classifying Groups 28
Group Versus Individual Efforts 32
A Typology of Treatment and Task Groups 35
Treatment Groups 36
Task Groups 44
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18 Chapter 1
OrganizatiOn Of the text
Group work is a series of activities carried out by the worker during the life of a group. We have found that it is helpful to conceptualize these activities as being a part of six developmental stages:
Groups exhibit certain properties and processes during each stage of their development. The group worker’s task is to engage in activities that facilitate the growth and development of the group and its members during each developmental stage. This book is divided into five parts. Part I focuses on the knowledge base needed to practice with groups. The remain- ing four parts are organized around each of these six stages of group work practice. Case studies illustrating each practice stage can be found at the end of Chapters 6 through 14.
the fOcus Of grOup WOrk practice
Social work practitioners use group work skills to help meet the needs of individual group members, the group as a whole, and the community. In this text, group work involves the following elements.
group Work practice • Practice with a broad range of treatment and task groups • Generalist practice based on a set of core competencies described in the Educa-
tion Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) of the Counci
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