What is Annotating a Text? Remember that a text can take many forms, because a text can be anything that uses a form of communication to convey a message to an audience. That message can be carried using any form of communication, including language or text, visual elements, auditory elements, tactile elements, and beyond. Texts can take the form of traditional print artifacts, such as a newspaper or a chapter in a textbook, but they can also take many other forms such as infographics, billboards, television commercials, or objects (such as t-shirts or water bottles).
Growing as a writer requires developing close reading skills: writers should practice interpreting texts around them to discover how texts are created, how they “work,” and how others might interact with them and understand them. Texts only take on meaning when a reader constructs a meaning through the process of interpretation. To help draw your attention to how you construct meaning as a close reader, you’re expected to annotate many texts in this class. You are expected to complete annotations by hand in this course.
Psychotherapist and journaling expert Maud Purcell suggests (Links to an external site.) that the act of writing helps filter information and focus; Maria Konnikova of The New York Times reports (Links to an external site.) that psychologists and neuroscientists have found that writing longhand improves retention of information, helps generate more ideas, and deepens reading abilities. If you require accommodations for the activity of writing by hand, you may complete annotations in a digital form, perhaps by using Adobe Reader or your preferred platform to create text boxes and other markings that make similar moves that hand-written annotations would.
Annotation is the process of marking on and interacting with a text to construct an interpretation of it as you consume it.
This guide offers some strategies that will help you practice annotating and become a close reader. Annotations can take two main forms: markings and verbal comments.
Markings can include moves such as underlining, circling, highlighting, and other ways of flagging parts of the text. For example, you can:
Especially if the process of annotation is new to you, try this “formula” for constructing comments: simply take notes any time you appreciate, notice, or wonder something by starting comments in one of the following forms:
Here are other suggestions for how to verbalize your interpretations as you read:
Annotation Video Guide
If you’re annotating using pen and PA.PER:
If you’re annotating using a stylus on a tablet or other device:
A Note about the Cover
Is everything really an argument? Seeing the images on the cover of this book might make you wonder. The “Free Speech Zone” sign, for example, instantly calls to mind the debates across the United States about the limits of free expression, especially on college campuses. The ominous-looking hand coming out of the laptop suggests the ease with which hackers obtain personal data. Does the image of teens playing on cell phones in the back seat of a car argue for or against the ways that technology is shaping how we are communicating with one another? The polar bear on a shrinking ice floe reminds us of the scientific fact of climate change but also invites a discussion of how powerful visuals can sway our opinions and beliefs. As for the “100% vegan” sticker, what’s your impression? Is it a proud proclamation of
one’s identity or values? A straightforward fact about a food’s origins? A sharp commentary on the influence of advertising on the food industry? What’s your take?
Everything’s an Argument with Readings Andrea A. Lunsford
John J. Ruszkiewicz
UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY
For Bedford/St. Martin’s
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Acknowledgments Text acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on pages 793–94, which constitute an extension of the copyright page. Art acknowledgments and copyrights appear on the same page as the art selections they cover.
Preface When we began work on this text in 1996 (the first edition came out in 1998), we couldn’t have anticipated all the events of the next two tumultuous decades, or all the changes to public and private discourse, or the current deeply divided state of our nation. But we have tried hard, over these decades, to track such changes and the ways rhetoric and argument have evolved and responded to them.
Certainly, we recognized the increasingly important role digital culture plays in all our lives, and so with each new edition we have included more on the technologies of communication, particularly those associated with social media; and we early on recognized that, like rhetoric itself, social media can be used for good or for ill, to bring people together or to separate them.
We have also carefully tracked the forms that arguments take today, from cartoons and graphic narratives to blogs and other postings to multimodal projects of almost every conceivable kind. While argument has always surrounded us, today it does so in an amazing array of genres and forms, including aural and visual components that strengthen and amplify arguments.
The sheer proliferation of information (not to mention misinformation, disinformation, and outright lies) that bombards all writers led us to reaffirm our commitment to studying and teaching style, since (as Richard Lanham and others argue) in the age of information overload, style is the tool writers possess to try to capture and keep the attention of audiences. Attention to style reveals other changes, such as the
increasing use of informal registers and conversational styles even in academic arguments.
Perhaps most important, though, a look back over the last twenty-two years reaffirms the crucial role that rhetoric can and should play in personal, work, and school lives. At its best, rhetoric is the art, theory, and practice of ethical communication, needed more sorely today than perhaps ever before. Everything’s an Argument with Readings presents this view of rhetoric and illustrates it with a fair and wide range of perspectives and views, which we hope will inspire student writers to think of themselves as rhetors, as Quintilian’s “good person, speaking well.”
Key Features Two books in one, neatly linked. Up front is a brief guide to Aristotelian, Toulmin, and Rogerian argument; common types of arguments; presenting arguments; and researching arguments. In the back is a thematically organized anthology of readings in a wide range of genres. Handy cross-references in the margins allow students to move easily from the argument chapters to specific examples in the readings and from the readings to appropriate rhetorical instruction.
Short, relatable excerpts weave in the debates that rage around us. From #metoo tweets and protest posters to essays and scholarly writing, boldfaced examples illustrate the arguments happening in politics, economics, journalism, and media, with brief student-friendly analyses.
Five thematic readings chapters that encourage students to explore
complex arguments. Readings on “How Does Popular Culture Stereotype You?,” “Has the Internet Destroyed Privacy?,” and “How Free Should Campus Speech Be?” demand that students consider the many sides of contemporary issues across the political spectrum, going beyond a simple pro/con stance.
A real-world, full-color design that builds students’ understanding of visual rhetoric. Presenting readings in the style of their original publications helps students recognize and think about the effect that design and visuals have on written and multimodal arguments.
New to This Edition A new section on rhetorical listening in Chapter 1. The very first chapter of the eighth edition now emphasizes the importance of listening rhetorically and respectfully, encouraging readers to move beyond “echo chambers” and build bridges among all viewpoints.
Eight new full-length models in the guide provide engaging, topical arguments of fact, definition, evaluation, cause and effect, proposals, and rhetorical analysis. Legal scholar Stephen L. Carter offers a Toulmin analysis of whether racial epithets should be considered free speech, while New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof presents an op-ed in defense of public wilderness.
Five new annotated student essays address topics students care about, from millennials’ love of food to breaking a social media addiction.
Thirty-one engaging new readings on hot-button issues such as free speech, food, language, privacy, and stereotypes. Selections
represent a range of genres and span the full gamut of social and political views, including:
excerpts from a recent Gallup poll showing what college students think about First Amendment issues visual arguments and a scholarly essay supporting and critiquing the concept of racial microaggressions best-selling essayist Roxane Gay on the language we use to describe sexual violence an Economist blog post acknowledging that sport shooting can be, well, fun an argument against veganism . . . written by a vegan
A new introduction in the instructor’s notes. Focusing on the teaching of argument, this new introduction gives experienced and first-time instructors a strong pedagogical foundation. Sample syllabi for both semester and quarter courses provide help for pacing all types of courses.
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Smart search. Built on research with more than 1,600 student writers, the smart search in Writer’s Help 2.0 provides reliable results even when students use novice terms, such as flow and unstuck. Trusted content from our best-selling handbooks. Andrea Lunsford’s user-friendly tone ensures that students have clear advice and examples for all of their writing questions. Diagnostics that help establish a baseline for instruction. Assign diagnostics to identify areas of strength and areas for improvement and to help students plan a course of study. Use visual reports to track performance by topic, class, and student as well as improvement over time. Adaptive exercises that engage students. Writer’s Help 2.0 includes LearningCurve, game-like online quizzing that adapts to what students already know and helps them focus on what they need to learn.
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Instructor Resources You have a lot to do in your course. We want to make it easy for you to find the support you need—and to get it quickly.
Instructor’s Notes for Everything’s an Argument with Readings is available as a PDF that can be downloaded from macmillanlearning.com. Visit the instructor resources tab for Everything’s an Argument with Readings. In addition to chapter overviews and teaching tips, the instructor’s manual offers an introduction about teaching the argument course, sample syllabi, correlations to the Council of Writing Program Administrators’ Outcomes Statement, and potential answers to the “Respond” questions in the book.
Acknowledgments We owe a debt of gratitude to many people for making Everything’s an Argument with Readings possible. Our first thanks must go to the thousands of people we have taught in our writing courses over nearly four decades, particularly students at the Ohio State University, Stanford University, the University of Texas at Austin, and Portland State University. Almost every chapter in this book has been informed by a classroom encounter with a student whose shrewd observation or perceptive question sent an ambitious lesson plan spiraling to the ground. (Anyone who has tried to teach claims and warrants on the fly to skeptical first-year writers will surely appreciate why we have qualified our claims in the Toulmin chapter so carefully.) But students have also provided the motive for writing this book. More than ever, they need to know how to read and write arguments effectively if they
are to secure a place in a world growing ever smaller and more rhetorically challenging.
We are deeply grateful to the editors at Bedford/St. Martin’s who have contributed their formidable talents to this book. In particular, we want to thank the ingenious and efficient Rachel Goldberg for guiding us so patiently and confidently—helping us locate just the right items whenever we needed fresh examples and images and gracefully recasting passage after passage to satisfy permissions mandates. Senior content project manager Ryan Sullivan was relentlessly upbeat and kind in all his communications, making the ever-more-complex stages of production almost a pleasure. We also appreciate the extensive support and help of Lexi DeConti, who kept us attuned to examples and readings that might appeal to students today. We are similarly grateful to senior program manager John Sullivan, whose support was unfailing; Kalina Ingham, Arthur Johnson, and Tom Wilcox, for text permissions; Angela Boehler and Krystyna Borgen, for art permissions; William Boardman, for our cover design; Bridget Leahy, copyeditor; and William Hwang, editorial assistant. All of you made editing the eighth edition feel fresh and creative.
We’d also like to thank the astute instructors who reviewed the seventh edition: Brigitte Anderson, University of Pikeville; Samantha Battrick, Truman State University; Kathryn Bennett, Old Dominion University; Jeanne Bohannon, Kennesaw State University; Rebecca Cepek, Duquesne University; Laura Dumin, University of Central Oklahoma; Tim Engles, Eastern Illinois University; Karen Feldman, Seminole State College of Florida; Africa Fine, Palm Beach State College;
Darius Frasure, Mountain View College; Erin Gallagher, Washington State University; Ben Graydon, Daytona State College; Joseph Hernandez, Mt. San Jacinto College; Julie Moore-Felux, Northwest Vista College; Laurie Murray, Anderson University; Kolawole Olaiya, Anderson University; Leslie Rapparlie, University of Colorado; Thomas Reynolds, Northwestern State University; Loreen Smith, Isothermal Community College; Benjamin Syn, University of Colorado; Gina Szabady, Lane Community College; Amy Walton, Iowa State University; and Miriam Young, Truman State University.
Thanks, too, to Sherrie Weller of Loyola Chicago University and Valerie Duff-Stroutmann of Newbury College, who updated the instructor’s notes for this eighth edition with a new introduction, new model syllabi, new points for discussion, and new classroom activities. We hope this resource will be useful as instructors build their courses. Finally, we are grateful to the students whose fine argumentative essays or materials appear in our chapters: Cameron Hauer, Kate Beispel, Jenny Kim, Laura Tarrant, Natasha Rodriguez, Caleb Wong, Juliana Chang, George Chidiac, and Charlotte Geaghan-Breiner. We hope that Everything’s an Argument with Readings responds to what students and instructors have said they want and need.
Andrea A. Lunsford
John J. Ruszkiewicz
Correlation to Council of Writing Program
Administrators’ (WPA) Outcomes Everything’s an Argument with Readings works with the Council of Writing Program Administrators’ Outcomes Statement for first-year composition courses (last updated 2014).
2014 WPA Outcomes
Support in Everything’s an Argument with Readings, 8e
Learn and use key rhetorical concepts through analyzing and composing a variety of texts.
Chapter 1, “Understanding Arguments and Reading Them Critically” (pp. 3–31), establishes the central elements of the rhetorical situation and encourages rhetorical listening.
Chapter 6, “Rhetorical Analysis” (pp. 97–132), further develops these concepts and teaches students how to analyze a rhetorical analysis and compose their own.
Each chapter offers dozens of written, visual, and multimodal texts to analyze, in both the guide portion and the thematic reader.
Gain experience reading and composing in several genres to understand how genre conventions shape and are shaped by readers’ and writers’
Everything’s an Argument with Readings provides engaging readings across genres, from academic essays and newspaper editorials to tweets and infographics. “Respond” boxes throughout each chapter (e.g., pp. 56–57) invite students to think critically about the material. For more genre variety, Everything’s an Argument with Readings also contains a five-chapter thematic reader with additional multimodal genres, including an art installation, Web articles, scholarly essays, and political cartoons.
practices and purposes.
Each chapter on a specific type of argument features project ideas (e.g., p. 186), giving students detailed prompts to write their own arguments of fact, arguments of definition, evaluations, causal arguments, and proposals.
Develop facility in responding to a variety of situations and contexts, calling for purposeful shifts in voice, tone, level of formality, design, medium, and/or structure.
Chapter 13, “Style in Arguments” (pp. 321–45), addresses word choice, tone, sentence structure, punctuation, and figurative language, with engaging examples of each.
The “Cultural Contexts for Argument” boxes throughout the text (e.g., p. 163) address how people from other cultures might respond to different styles or structures of argument. This feature offers suggestions on how to think about argument in an unfamiliar cultural context.
Understand and use a variety of technologies to address a range of audiences.
Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402), addresses how new media has transformed the array of choices for making arguments and reaching audiences. This chapter teaches how to analyze multimodal arguments as well as how to create them through Web sites, videos, wikis, blogs, social media, memes, posters, and comics.
Match the capacities of different environments (e.g., print & electronic) to varying rhetorical situations.
Chapter 14, “Visual Rhetoric” (pp. 346–62), discusses the power of visual rhetoric and how students can use visuals in their own work.
Chapter 15, “Presenting Arguments” (pp. 363–80), includes material on incorporating various media into presentations and Webcasts.
Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402), analyzes the evolving landscape of argument across media platforms.
Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp. 405–37), covers the conventions of academic arguments.
Critical Thinking, Reading, and Composing
Use composing and reading for inquiry, learning, thinking, and communicating in various rhetorical contexts.
Chapter 1, “Understanding Arguments and Reading Them Critically” (pp. 3–31), features a section called “Why Listen to Arguments Rhetorically and Respectfully” (pp. 7–8). It teaches students to listen openly and constructively and calls attention to the need to escape “echo chambers,” respectfully consider all viewpoints, and find common ground.
Throughout Everything’s an Argument with Readings, students are invited to delve deeper into current issues in the world around them, considering the various arguments presented in tweets, newspapers, scholarly papers, court rulings, and even bumper stickers. Everything’s an Argument with Readings guides students in asking critical questions about these contexts and learning how to respond to and create their own compositions. Chapters dedicated to central types of argument explain how students might best approach each writing situation. The chapters close with a guide to writing arguments of that type:
Chapter 8, “Arguments of Fact” (pp. 164–96)
Chapter 9, “Arguments of Definition” (pp. 197–223)
Chapter 10, “Evaluations” (pp. 224–54)
Chapter 11, “Causal Arguments” (pp. 255–85)
Chapter 12, “Proposals” (pp. 286–318)
Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402)
Read a diverse range of texts, attending especially to relationships between assertion and evidence, to patterns of organization, to interplay between verbal and nonverbal elements, and how these features function for different audiences and situations.
Chapter 7, “Structuring Arguments” (pp. 135–63), examines making claims and using evidence to support those claims. It delves into the structure of Rogerian and Toulmin arguments, showing how different argument types work for different writing situations.
Each Guide to Writing features sections on “Formulating a Claim” and “Thinking about Organization” (e.g., pp. 212 and 214), emphasizing the use of evidence and the structure of the argument.
Locate and evaluate primary and secondary research materials, including journal articles, essays, books, databases, and informal Internet sources.
Chapter 18, “Finding Evidence” (pp. 438–53), covers locating evidence from print, electronic, and field research sources.
Chapter 19, “Evaluating Sources” (pp. 454–63), addresses how to assess those sources effectively.
Use strategies — such as interpretation,
Chapter 20, “Using Sources,” provides detailed explanations of summary, paraphrase, and quotation and when to use each approach (pp. 467–73). The
synthesis, response, critique, and design/redesign — to compose texts that integrate the writer’s ideas with those from appropriate sources.
chapter discusses framing with introductory phrases and signal verbs, and it presents multiple ways to connect source material to a student’s own ideas — by establishing a context, introducing a term or concept, developing a claim, highlighting differences, and avoiding “patchwriting” (pp. 480–82).
Chapter 21, “Plagiarism and Academic Integrity” (pp. 484–93), highlights the importance of acknowledging another writer’s work.
Chapter 22, “Documenting Sources” (pp. 494–532), concludes the research section of the book with a discussion of MLA and APA documentation, including a wide range of citation models in both formats.
Develop a writing project through multiple drafts.
Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp. 405–37), stresses the importance of working through multiple drafts of a project, using revision and peer feedback to improve the document.
Develop flexible strategies for reading, drafting, reviewing, collaboration, revising, rewriting, rereading, and editing.
Writing is a fundamental focus of Everything’s an Argument with Readings, and students learn to critique their own work and the work of others in almost every part of the book. Each Guide to Writing, focusing on a specific type of argument in the Part 2 chapters, contains step-by-step advice on drafting, researching, and organizing, as well as peer review questions about the claim being made, the evidence provided for the claim, and the organization and style of the essay.
The Guide to Writing also asks students to review their spelling, punctuation, mechanics, documentation, and format.
Use composing processes and tools as a means to discover and reconsider ideas.
Chapter 7, “Structuring Arguments” (pp. 135–63), provides a clear explanation for how to construct an argument and support it effectively, and it includes a brief annotated model from a classic text.
The “Developing an Academic Argument” section (pp. 411–18) in Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp. 405–37), guides students through the specific process of developing a paper in an academic setting, from selecting a topic and exploring it in depth to entering into the conversation around the chosen topic. Two annotated examples of academic arguments are provided at the end of the chapter.
Experience the collaborative and social aspects of writing processes.
Many “Respond” questions have students work in pairs or groups to analyze rhetorical situations, arguments, or appeals. See p. 36, for instance.
In Chapter 21, “Plagiarism and Academic Integrity” (pp. 484–93), students learn the importance of giving credit, getting permission to use the materials of others, citing sources appropriately, and acknowledging collaboration with their peers.
Learn to give and act on productive feedback to works in progress.
Each Guide to Writing, focusing on a specific type of argument in the Part 2 chapters, contains a “Getting and Giving Response: Questions for Peer Review” section (e.g., pp. 183–85) tailored to that argument type. These questions address the claim being made, the evidence provided for the claim, and the organization and style of the essay.
Adapt composing processes for a variety of technologies and modalities.
Awareness of technology runs throughout Everything’s an Argument with Readings, beginning in the first chapter with an exploration of arguments made via Twitter. A particular focus on multimodal arguments is made in Chapter 14, “Visual Rhetoric” (pp. 346–62),
which covers how effective images can be and instructs students on incorporating them to achieve specific rhetorical purposes, and in Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402), which focuses on how technology offers new platforms and opportunities for composition, as well as some new pitfalls to avoid. These chapters provide students with tools for creating their own multimodal compositions.
Reflect on the development of composing practices and how those practices influence their work.
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